Deblurring with TensorFlow

Blurred Image Blurred Image

Deblurred Image Deblurred Image

Recently, Google open-sourced a toolkit called TensorFlow which provides a platform for neural networks. It provides a native core written in C, and many examples written in Python. Although the architecture is extensible and will hopefully will be usable from Java/Scala application code in the future, I took some time recently to evaluate it using Python to perform deconvolutions (a.k.a. deblurring), the same task I recently wrote about using my own NN library.

Getting the code to work is fairly easy via prebuilt distribution packages. It also isn’t too hard to build from scratch, though if you use Windows you may need to use a virtual machine to run it. My main difficulty was adapting to Python, which isn’t a language I use often. The below code implements a gradient descent based spacial deconvolution, demonstrated by these images.

import tensorflow as tf
import mahotas
import as imgio
import numpy
import scipy.misc

if __name__ == '__main__':
    p_imgfile = 'monkey-02.jpg'
    p_imgscale = .33
    p_ksize = 4
    p_kiter = 3

    img_raw = mahotas.imread(p_imgfile)
    img_base = scipy.misc.imresize(img_raw, p_imgscale)/255.0
    imgio.imsave('base.png', img_base)
    kernel = numpy.zeros([p_ksize, p_ksize, 3, 3])
    for c in range(0,3):
        for xy in range(0,p_ksize):
            kernel[xy,xy,c,c] = 1.0/p_ksize

    v_img = tf.Variable(tf.zeros(img_base.shape), name="Unblurred_Image")
    op_img_resize = tf.reshape(v_img, [-1, img_base.shape[0], 
        img_base.shape[1], img_base.shape[2]])
    pl_kernel = tf.placeholder("float", shape=kernel.shape, name="Kernel")
    op_init = tf.initialize_all_variables()

    op_convolve = op_img_resize
    for blurStage in range(0,p_kiter):
        op_convolve = tf.nn.conv2d(op_convolve, pl_kernel, 
            strides=[1, 1, 1, 1], padding='SAME')

    with tf.Session() as session:
        img_blurred =, feed_dict={
            v_img: img_base, pl_kernel: kernel})
    imgio.imsave('blurred.png', img_blurred[0])
    pl_blurredImg = tf.placeholder("float", shape=img_blurred.shape)
    op_loss = tf.reduce_sum(tf.square(op_convolve - pl_blurredImg))
    op_optimize = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.5).minimize(op_loss)
    def f_pixel(x):
        return 0 if x<0 else 1 if x>1 else x
    f_img = numpy.vectorize(f_pixel, otypes=[numpy.float])
    with tf.Session() as session:
        for epoch in range(0,5):
            img_deblurred = f_img(, feed_dict={
                pl_blurredImg: img_blurred, pl_kernel: kernel}))
            imgio.imsave("deblurred-%s.png" % epoch, img_deblurred)
            for iteration in range(0,10):
                error =[op_optimize, op_loss], feed_dict={
                    pl_blurredImg: img_blurred, pl_kernel: kernel})[1]
                print("%s/%s = %s" % (epoch, iteration, error))
        img_deblurred = f_img(, feed_dict={
            pl_blurredImg: img_blurred, pl_kernel: kernel}))
    imgio.imsave("deblurred-final.png", img_deblurred)

This code is admittedly extremely basic, but demonstrates another useful application domain for this software. More soon, I hope!